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DOITIMETITLEabstract aerosol formation in citronella candle plumesCitronella candles are widely used as insect repellants, especially outdoors in the evening. Because these essential oils are unsaturated, they have a unique potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via reaction with ozone, which is also commonly elevated on summer evenings when the candles are often in use. We investigated this process, along with primary aerosol emissions, by briefly placing a citronella tealight candle in a smog chamber and then adding ozone to the chamber. In repeated experiments, we observed rapid and substantial SOA formation after ozone addition; this process must therefore be considered when assessing the risks and benefits of using citronella candle to repel insects. candle central exclusive processes at the Tevatron and LHCCentral exclusive production (CEP) processes in high-energy proton�anti)proton collisions offer a very promising framework within which to study both novel aspects of QCD and new physics signals. Among the many interesting processes that can be studied in this way, those involving the production of heavy (c,b) quarkonia and γ γ states have sufficiently well understood theoretical properties and sufficiently large cross sections that they can serve as ‘standard candle�processes with which we can benchmark predictions for new physics CEP at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Motivated by the broad agreement with theoretical predictions of recent CEP measurements at the Fermilab Tevatron, we perform a detailed quantitative study of heavy quarkonia (χ and η) and γ γ production at the Tevatron, RHIC and LHC, paying particular attention to the various uncertainties in the calculations. Our results confirm the rich phenomenology that these production processes offer at present and future high-energy colliders. Vegetation Contributions to Polynesia’s Social Heritage: The Legacy of Candlenut Tree (Aleurites moluccana) Forests and Bamboo (Schizostachyum glaucifolium) Groves on the Island of TahitiAnthropogenic Vegetation Contributions to Polynesia’s Social Heritage: The Legacy of Candlenut Tree ( Aleurites moluccana ) Forests and Bamboo ( Schizostachyum glaucifolium ) Groves on the Island of Tahiti. In the tropical oceanic islands of the Pacific, vegetation patterns and dynamics are the result of plant dispersal capacities, the physical characteristics of the islands�ecosystems, and natural disturbances. However, humans have profoundly modified native landscapes through habitat destruction and the introduction of animal and plant species. The candlenut tree Aleurites moluccana (Euphorbiaceae) and the Polynesian bamboo Schizostachyum glaucifolium (Poaceae), intentionally introduced as useful plants by the first Polynesian migrants at least 1,000 years ago, are now widely naturalized in the high volcanic islands of the Society archipelago (French Polynesia), but with an intriguing patchy distribution. The present study consists of a comparative analysis between the most recent existing vegetation map and the known archeological sites on the island of Tahiti. Thirty-nine bamboo groves and 30 candlenut forests were identified and located using GIS and a Digital Elevation Model. The results show that the dispersal and distribution patterns of these two plant taxa are related to the presence and location of ancient sites of Polynesian occupation. The bamboo groves can be used as a bio-indicator of the presence of potential archeological sites. Their currently restricted distribution might reflect habitat requirements and poor dispersal capacities. The candlenut tree and the Polynesian bamboo are relicts of ancient Polynesian society that have persisted and remain integrated in the modern landscape. They can therefore be viewed as introduced species of high cultural heritage value. Smoke Points of Wax CandlesAn experimental investigation of laminar smoke points of candle flames is presented. Adjustable wicks with diameters of 1.7-7.3 mm were used to measure smoke points in quiescent air for 14 different waxes. The measured smoke points increased with wick diameter. Smoke points interpolated to a wick diameter of 4.5 mm varied from 41-80 mm and increased from commercial waxes (candelilla, carnauba, beeswax, paraffin) to normal alkanes (hexatriacontane, octacosane, tetracosane) to primary alcohols (octadecanol, docosanol, hexadecanol) to carboxylic acids (stearic, palmitic, lauric, myristic). Wax smoke points decreased with increasing carbon number. Alkane and alcohol smoke points decreased with increasing fuel C/H ratio and correlated with past measurements of liquid fuels and polymers. Soot emission was not possible for any fuel when wick diameter was below 1.7 mm or when wick length was below 5.9 mm. to Terms with ¡°Unreasonable¡± Global Power: The 2002 South Korean Candlelight VigilsIn this essay I examine the emergence of the 2002 South Korean candlelight vigils, with a focus on how South Korea's post-Cold War generation collectively defined two Korean girls' deaths by a US military vehicle as a ¡°national tragedy¡± and imagined themselves as a collective opponent of perceived Cold War politics. The Internet discourse that Korean ¡°netizens¡± generated in the wake of the incident shows that Korea's Internet users interpreted and contested US hegemony by inventing local vernacular discourses: they created a collective identity based on shared feelings, invented criteria for reasonableness, and employed nontraditional forms of civic discourse. My analysis calls for attention to the vernacular discursive practices of social actors, who mediate, negotiate, and transform the manner in which global power relationships influence them within a local context. of porous permeable ceramic material and filtering element technology for candle-shaped filter equipmentAreduction in manufacture expenditure for a production unit, and also preparation of metals and alloys in pure and ultra-pure form may be achieved using newly created filtering elements made of porous permeable ceramic materials with a pore size controlled from “micro�to “nano� Methodology is presented for creating filtering elements made of porous permeable ceramic based on a concentrate of disthene-sillimanite for candle-shaped filtering elements. of candle burning with a self-trimmed wickAs an example of a coupled gas-phase diffusion flame with porous media flow, a candle burning model with a porous wick is offered in this paper. The porous media analysis includes capillarity-induced liquid flow, liquid vaporisation, vapour motion and re-condensation and multi-phase heat transfer. Coupling with the gas phase flame is through the conservation of mass, momentum and energy at the wick surface. The steady state solutions obtained not only yield the flame structure but also the detailed flow pattern and saturation distributions inside the wick. One of the novel features of the present model is the capability to address the self-trimming phenomena of candle burning. The self-trimming wick length and the associated flame characteristics have been computed as a function of gravity level, wick permeability and wick diameter. boson as “the standard candle” for high-precision W boson physics at LHCIn this paper we propose a strategy for measuring the inclusive W boson production processes at LHC. This strategy exploits simultaneously the unique flexibility of the LHC collider in running variable beam particle species at variable beam energies, and the configuration flexibility of the LHC detectors. We propose their concrete settings for a precision measurement of the standard model parameters. These dedicated settings optimise the use of the Z boson and Drell–Yan-pair production processes as “the standard reference candles”. The presented strategy allows one to factorise and to directly measure those of the QCD effects that affect differently the W and Z production processes. It reduces to a level of $\mathcal{O}(10^{-4})$ the impact of uncertainties in the partonic distribution functions (PDFs) and in the transverse momentum of the quarks on the measurement precision. Last but not the least, it reduces by a factor of 10 the impact of systematic measurement errors, such as the energy scale and the measurement resolution, on the W boson production observables. Modification of Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil to Improve its Functional Properties for CandlesPartially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO) has recently been used to make vegetable oil-based candles. However, its use is limited primarily to container candles because of its inherent physical properties, such as brittleness when a hard material is produced, and greasiness when it is soft by low degree of hydrogenation. Such material lacks the most desired cohesiveness and elasticity compared to the commercial petroleum paraffin and beeswax. To improve the cohesiveness and thermal properties of PHVO, epoxidation, ring-opening reaction, and esterification were conducted to introduce new functional groups into the fatty acyl chain of PHVO. These newly synthesized derivatives or waxes were also mixed with the fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO) or PHVO base materials. Hardness and cohesiveness of the new waxes and the mixtures were measured with a texture analyzer. Their thermal properties were analyzed with a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that the introduction of hydroxyl (OH) group significantly improved the cohesiveness of PHVO. The melting range of PHVO also increased after the reactions. However, the hardness of the new wax was lower than those of commercial paraffin wax or beeswax. For wax mixtures, the hardness of dihydroxy wax was significantly improved by the addition of FHSO, however, the cohesiveness was negatively affected by the amount of FHSO added. Both the melting and the crystallization ranges were widened by mixing the derivatives with the base materials. and Nano-Aerosol Production During Candle Burning: Size Distribution and Concentration Profile with TimeThe characteristics of small-ions and aerosols in the diameter range 0.4 nm to 1.1 ¦Ìm, produced during burning of paraffin wax tea-light candles, were investigated using a custom-built aspiration condenser ion mobility spectrometer (ACIMS) and a sequential mobility particle sizer and counter (SMPS+C) system. Peaks in the number concentration were observed at diameters 10-30 nm and 100-300 nm, consistent with ¡°normal¡± and ¡°sooting¡± burn modes. In addition, a smaller mode in the size range 2.5-9 nm was observed, interpreted as a soot-precursor species. When a fan was placed behind the burning candle a ¡°modified small-ion¡± signal was seen at sizes 1.1-2.0 nm. This was not observed without the fan present or when a lamp chimney was used. During burning, aerosol concentration was elevated and small-ion counts were low. However after extinction of the flame, this trend was reversed and the number of small-ions increased to levels higher than those observed prior to burning, remaining so for several hours. candlestick technical trading strategies profitable in the Japanese equity market?We show that candlestick charting, the oldest known form of technical analysis, is not profitable in the Japanese equity market over the 1975�004 period. Candlestick technical analysis, which was developed in Japan in the 1600s, is deeply intertwined with Japanese culture and is very popular in Japan. However, there is no evidence candlestick technical trading strategies add value in either the entire 30 year period, in three 10 year sub-periods or in bull or bear markets. Evaluation of Ceramic Candle Filter with Various Boundary ConditionsNondestructive evaluation (NDE) using a dynamic characterization technique was conducted to study ceramic candle filters. Ceramic candle filters are hollow cylindrical structures made of porous ceramic materials used to protect gas turbine in coal-fired power plants. Deterioration and failure of ceramic filters occurs after being exposed to high-temperature and high-pressure operational environment over a period of time. This paper focuses on the development of an NDE method that can predict the in-situ structural stiffness of the candle filters while still being attached to the plenum. A combination of laboratory testing, theoretical analysis, and finite element method (FEM) simulations are presented. The candle filters were tested using a laser vibrometer/accelerometer setup with variable boundary restraints. A variable end-restraint Timoshenko beam equation was derived to determine the dynamic response of the candle filters with simulated in-situ boundary conditions. Results from the FEM simulation were verified with the analysis to determine the stiffness degradation of the candle filters as well as the boundary conditions. Results from this study show that the vibration characteristics can be used effectively to evaluate both the structural stiffness and the in-situ boundary restraints of the ceramic candle filters during field inspections. Candle Burning at Both EndsA formerly married gay man speaks up for the feminine in both women and men and examines gay men's feelings about bisexual men from the standpoint of gender roles and concerns about male identity. Although eschewing dichotomous existence, he reflects on earlier married life and his love and respect for women, and concludes that the road not taken is still visible from another road and still has its attractions and value.“borrowing Foreign Mirrors and Candles To Illuminate Chinese Civilization”: Xue Shaohui’s Moral Vision in The Biographies of Foreign WomenWaiguo lienü zhuan (Biographies of foreign women), the first systematic introduction of foreign women to the Chinese audience, was compiled by the late Qing writer Xue Shaohui (1866-1911) and her husband Chen Shoupeng (1857-?). This project represented an effort to advance the goals of the abortive 1898 reforms, a serious quest to incorporate Western experiences into the education of Chinese women. Through a close comparison with Western language sources, this article examines Xue Shaohui’s reconceptualization of women’s virtues through rewriting and sometimes twisting the original stories. The analysis focuses on sensitive moral issues—sex and power, the relationship between husband and wife, and the redefinition of wickedness when the conventional definition of a bad woman was no longer pertinent. Type Ia Supernovae Standard Candles?The use of standard candles for distance measurements is wide spread. Yet, we currently do not know a pure standard candle in astronomy. The concept of standard candles involves not only the secure establishment of a unique luminosity but also a clear observational distinction of the objects as a class. Even Type Ia supernovae, whose maximum luminosity shows amongst the smallest scatter known, need to be normalised to provide accurate distances. Without this normalisation the cosmological claims based on supernovae would not be possible. With a careful normalisation Type Ia supernovae are the best known distance indicators for cosmology to date. This is most easily shown by the small dispersion around the expansion line in the Hubble diagram. Problems with the empirical normalisation remain and a theoretical understanding of this normalisation is missing. This has direct ramifications on systematic uncertainties when deriving cosmological implications from Type Ia supernovae. Improving the understanding of supernova physics is now the prime task to sharpen this tool of observational cosmology. Once the explosion mechanism is revealed a serious discussion of possible evolutionary effects in Type Ia supernovae can start. Candle in the Wind: Korean Perceptions of ROK-U.S. Security RelationsSouth Korea's domestic public opinion has become a powerful factor in the foreign policy-making process, but it should be appropriately guided and set, when necessary, according to the government's ¡°correct¡± reading of the international environment and by formulating ¡°best¡± policy options available to the country.The authors used survey analyses to identify the differences in opinions on security-related issues among an elite group and college students. The authors tested whether Korean public opinion regarding security issues can easily be changed through informative public education and in-depth discussions.Based on these findings, this paper stresses the importance of informing the public and the necessity of increasing security communication efforts. As long as elite groups in both countries see the national interest as requiring maintenance of the ROK-U.S. alliance, they should make efforts to provide proper information about the role of the alliance and let citizens understand its importance through proper deliberations and public education.Given that the U.S. Forces in Korea may gradually be adjusted to reflect the changing security environment in Northeast Asia and that there remains a salient rationale for Korea-U.S. security cooperation given neighboring great powers, the ongoing Korea-U.S. alliance will certainly remain a win-win strategic option for both countries. How and in what capacity the two allies will coordinate on the North Korean nuclear crisis will be the critical litmus test that will reveal the future direction of the ROK-U.S. alliance. and dust cake experiment by ceramic candle filter in high temperature conditionsParticulate collection at high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) is important in an advanced coal power generation system not only to improve the thermal efficiency of the system, but also to prevent the gas turbine from erosion and to meet the emission limits of the effluent gas. The specifications for particulate collection in those systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) require absolutely high collection efficiency and reliability. Advanced cyclone, granular bed filter, electrostatic precipitator, and ceramic filter have been developed for particulate collection in the advanced coal power generation system. However, rigid ceramic filters and granular bed filters among them show the best potential. The problems experienced of these systems on performance, materials, and mechanical design were investigated. Ceramic candle filters have the best potential for IGCC at this moment because they have nearly the highest efficiency compared with other filtering systems and have accumulated many reliable design data from many field experiences. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of ceramic filters and stability of material against high temperature and longterm operation condition by applying fly ash on the surface of the filter and relation of pressure drop and dust cake thickness. Experimental conditions were 50 hours at 450 °C, 650 °C and 850 °C. flow and particle transport and deposition in a candle filter vesselHot-gas flow and particle transport and deposition in an industrial filtration system are studied. The special example of the Siemens-Westinghouse filter vessel at the Power System Development Facility at Wilsonville, Alabama is treated in detail. This tangential flow filter vessel contains clusters of 91 candle filters, which are arranged in two tiers. The upper tier containing 36 candle filters is modeled by six equivalent filters. Seven equivalent filters are used in the computational model to represent the 55 candle filters in the lower tiers. The Reynolds stress turbulent model of FLUENT™ code is used, and the gas mean velocity and root mean square fluctuation velocities in the filter vessel are evaluated. The particle equation of motion used includes drag and gravitational forces. The mean particle deposition patterns are evaluated and the effect of particle size is studied. The computational results indicate that large particles of the order of 10 μm or larger are removed from the gas due to the centrifugal forces exerted by rotating flow between the shroud and the refractory. analysis of a flow passing through a ceramic candle filter on pulse jet cleaningCeramic filters are often utilized to collect dust particles under the very high temperature and high pressure conditions in flue gases for gas turbines or fuel cells in combined cycle power generation systems, and for their long-term use the dust cakes attached on the filter surface should be removed at adequate intervals. At present, the pulse jet-type dust cleaning method is considered to be the most useful. In this study, a numerical simulation is applied to a flow passing through a ceramic candle filter on the pulse jet cleaning, and the validity of it and the detailed flow behaviors are investigated by comparison with experiment. The results show that the present computation is valid in predicting the flow characteristics in the ceramic candle filters for arbitrary pulse jet and dust cake packing density conditions. Also, the dust-removal behaviors observed in the experiment can be well explained by using the time variation of pressure (static pressure) between the filter and dust cake. vegetable oils as candle waxPartially hydrogenated soybean oil, referred to as soywax, is gaining attention as a renewable and biodegradable alternative to paraffin wax for use in candles. However, current soywax candles suffer from several problems, especially poor melting and solidification properties. Fully hydrogenated soybean oil exhibits improved melting properties but owing to its fragile texture, it is not yet acceptable in most candle applications. In the present work, KLXTM (a wax composed of fractionated hydrogenated soy and cottonseed oils) was used as a base material for candles, and the effects of additives such as hydrogenated palm oil (HPO), FFA, and paraffin on the textural and combustion properties were evaluated. Melting and solidification profiles of KLX were better than those of fully hydrogenated soy oil. Adding FFA improved the solidification properties of KLX candles. Adding paraffin improved the compressibility of the wax, while HPO addition decreased hardness and compressibility. Changing the candle diameter and/or wick size along with changing the wax composition resulted in candles with desirable quality attributes. characteristics of candles made from hydrogenated soybean oilHydrogenated soybean oil, referred to as soywax by candle makers, is a renewable and biodegradable alternative to paraffin wax in candle manufacturing. Soywax was investigated for its tendency to produce soot as well as potentially harmful organic volatiles (acrolein, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde) during combustion. Beeswax and paraffin candles were used as references. A considerable amount of soot was produced from the combustion of paraffin candles, but little or none was observed from soywax candles. Compared to paraffin candles, soywax candles burned at a significantly slower rate and required less air. Small amounts of formaldehyde were detected and quantified in the fumes of burning paraffin candles. However, formaldehyde, peaks found in the chromatograms of soy- and beeswax candles were similar to or slightly higher than that of the blank. Since soywax candles exhibited burning properties similar to those of beeswax candles, soywax shows promise in candle applications. preparation of V2O5/TiO2 catalyst supported on the ceramic filter candle for selective reduction of NOIn order to prepare the catalytic filters based on V2O5/TiO2 for the removal of NOx and participate simultaneously from the flue gas stream, the experimental study was carried out. The effective method to support TiO2 layer in the pore of the commercial ceramic filter element was developed. TiO2 layer was supported on the filter element by three methods; impregnation with Ti solution, sol-gel dip coating and sol-gel centrifugal coating. As the model test to check the catalytic activity, NO reduction in the oxidizing stream was investigated. The catalytic filter prepared by applying the centrifugal force showed the best NO conversion more than 90% when the face velocity was 0.02 m/sec. This was a very promising result for the application of catalytic filter for the flue gas control at high temperature. The supporting methods by the impregnation and dip coating were not recommended because the TiO2 layer was concentrated in the exterior layer of the filter element. reactivity of V2O5-WO3-TiO2 catalyst supported on a ceramic filter candle for selective reduction of NOFor realizing the environmental issues and constituting an economical treatment system, a catalytic filter based on V2O5/TiO2 supported on tubular filter elements has many advantages by removing NOx and particulate simultaneously from flue gas. In order to improve the activity of a catalytic filter based on V2O5/TiO2 supported on a commercial high temperature filter element (PRD-66), the promoting effects of WO3 were investigated in an experimental unit. PRD-66 presented very good properties for SCR catalyst carrier since it contains much active material such as A12O3 SiO{om2}, and MgO whose contributions were remarkable. For additional catalyst carrier, TiO2 particles were coated in the pores of PRD-66 with relatively good distribution of the particle size less than 1 μm, by a coating process applying centrifugal force. WO3, in the V2O5-WO3-TiO2/PRD-66 catalytic filter system, increased the SCR activity significantly and broadened the optimum temperature window. The catalytic filter shows the maximum NO conversion of more than 95% for NO concentration of 700 ppmv at face velocity of 0.02 m/sec, which is comparable to the current commercial catalytic filters of plate form. Flames in Non-Buoyant AtmospheresThis paper addresses the behavior of a candle flame in a long-duration, quiescent microgravity environment both on the space Shuttle and the Mir Orbiting Station. On the Shuttle, the flames became dim blue after an initial transient where there was significant yellow (presumably soot) in the flame. The flame lifetimes were typically less than 60 seconds. The safety-mandated candlebox that contained the candle flame inhibited oxygen transport to the flame and thus limited the flame lifetime. The flames on the Mir were similar, except that the yellow luminosity persisted longer into the flame lifetime because of a higher initial oxygen concentration. The Mir flames bumed for as long as 45 minutes. The difference in the flame lifetime between the Shuttle and Mir flames was primarily the redesigned candlebox that did not inhibit oxygen transport to the flame. In both environments, the flame intensity and the height-to-width ratio gradually decreased as the ambient oxygen content in the sealed chamber slowly decreased. Both sets of experiments showed spontaneous, axisymmetric flame oscillations just prior to extinction.The paper also presents a numerical model of a candle flame. The formulation is two-dimensional and time-dependent in the gas phase with constant specific heats, thermal conductivity and Lewis number (although different species can have different Lewis numbers), one-step finite-rate kinetics, and gas-phase radiative losses from CO2 and H2O. The treatment of the liquid/wick phase assumes that the fuel evaporates from a constant diameter sphere connected to an inert cone. The model predicts a steady flame with a shape and size quantitatively similar to the Shuttle and Mir flames. The computation predicts that the flame size will increase slightly with increasing ambient oxygen mole fraction. The model also predicts pre-extinction flame oscillations if the rate of decrease in ambient oxygen is small enough, such as that which would occur for a flame burning in a sealed ambient. of the characteristics of Japanese candlesticks for the samuelson model of price changeExact probability distributions are found for statistics which describe the so-called Japanese candlesticks used to analyze stock and financial markets. of ceramic candle filter at high temperature for PFBC applicationIn order to develop a reliable system of a ceramic filter for paniculate collection at high temperatures like Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC), an experimental study was carried out to observe the characteristics of the ceramic filter utilizing a simple block weigh-down. One block weigh-down fixes four commercial filter elements coincidentally by pressing down the individual venturi diffuser. Its operational performance was investigated in the temperature range of 600-800 °C in a bench scale unit using oil combustion gas into which fly ash was fed. The transient aspects of the temperature and pressure in the pulse cleaning system were also observed during the pulse cleaning., 'Habitus', and Educational Research: is it all worth the candle?A recent critique of educational research published by the Office of Standards in Education has declared, largely on the basis of research reported in this journal, that Bourdieu- and particularly the concept of habitus- appears to have little to offer educational research. This proposition is considered in a critical evaluation of the origin of habitus in Bourdieu's work and its ability to fulfil its theoretical functions. It is concluded that there is no serious alternative but for those whose task it is to provide scientific accounts of social processes to engage with the concepts of disciplined thought - including that of Bourdieu. of nitrogen forms, cations, and metals as influenced by compost amendment to a candler fine sandLeachability of nitrogen forms, cations, and metals was evaluated in an entisol amended with compost. In this study, sugarcane filter cake (SF) and municipal solid waste plus biosolids (MSW + BSD) compost were applied to a Candler fine sand (hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Quartapsamments) at rates equivalent to 200 kg N ha-1(on air-dry weight basis) and intermittently leached with deionized water in 220 mL fractions for a total of 1,760 mL. The concentrations of NO3-N in leachate were below 10 mg L-1 (maximum contaminant limit of NO3-N; drinking water quality standards) for both compost sources. Leaching of most elements was greater from the soil amended with SF as compared to that with MSW + BSD. The highest concentrations of most elements (except P, Fe and Al) were observed in the second or third leachate fractions. The cumulative amount of NO3-N recovered in 1760 mL leachate accounted for 2.9 and 2.7% of total N applied using SF and MSW + BSD, respectively.Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. R-6056. desulfurization gypsum effects on leaching of magnesium and potassium from a candler fine sandSulfur dioxide scrubbing process in a coal-fired electric power generation plant results in production of a by-product called flue-gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), which contains abundance of calcium (Ca2+) and sulfate SO42-, and can be used as an amendment to agricultural soil. Effects of application of two rates FGDG (4.5 and 9.0 Mg ha-1) on leachate properties was compared with that of unamended Candler fine sand in leaching column experiment. The ionic strength of the leachate was five-fold greater in FGDG amended as compared to unamended treatment. The ionic strength decreased drastically after the fifth leaching. The pH of the leachate was significantly lower in FGDG amended as compared to unamended treatment. This was attributable to the ¡°salt effect¡±; of FGDG. The addition of FGDG significantly increased the concentrations of Ca2+ and SO42- in the leachate as compared to those from the unamended soil. The leaching of Mg2+ and K+ were also greater from FGDG amended as compared to the unamended soil. High loading of Ca2+ due to addition of FGDG appears to displace and leach other cations, such as K+ and or Mg2+, from the soil. effects of the ceramic candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) filter on back-pulse cleaning systemThe flow characteristics inside the ceramic candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) filter system used in hot gas cleanup was investigated. The filter system admits high pressure back-pulse air to blow out the dust cake. The pressure drop across the filter barrier plays a critical role in dust removal. The filter medium and dust cakes were considered as multi-layered porous media and were then modeled using Darcy’s effective permeability model. Theκ-ε model was adopted to study the turbulent flow in the filter system using FLUENT. A parametric study of the permeability of the filter media was performed to investigate the effects of dust cakes on the flow phenomena, in conjunction with the non-Darcian effect of the porous media flow and non-homogeneous boundary conditions in the inlet and the outlet. the candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) burning: Morehouse college into the 21st centuryDespite a trail of seemingly insurmountable philosophical and societal pressures surrounding the early academic education of blacks, Morehouse, early on, lifted its “candle in the dark” by stressing the academic preparation of its students for leadership positions through emphasis on a liberal arts curriculum. Such an emphasis has earned the college a stellar academic reputation; its historical record of graduates reads like a mini Who’s Who in America publication. Historical Account of Water Quality Changes in Candlewood Lake, Connecticut, Over a Sixty Year Period Using Paleolimnology and Ten Years of Monitoring DataA paleolimnological study was used in conjunction with ten years of monitoring data to assess the timing and magnitude of historical water quality changes in Candlewood Lake, a large pumped-storage reservoir in western Connecticut, USA. The paleolimnological aspect of the study supported much of the current literature on both reservoir development and die effects of land-use alterations of watersheds on waterbodies. Water quality trends gleaned from the monitoring database confirmed recent conditions inferred from fossil assemblages. Monitoring data also provided evidence supporting an improvement in trophic conditions beginning around 1988, but a continued increase in dissolved salt levels. The paleolimnological study and die long-term monitoring effort complemented each other in that the former provided quantitative insight beyond die temporal scope of monitoring, while die resolution of die latter enabled managers to assess effective strategies. index profiling across a candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) flame using speckle techniquesSpeckle techniques for refractive index measurements are analyzed theoretically. It is demonstrated that the resulting speckle pattern is equivalent to the ordinary pattern convolved with a function representing the effect of light deflection, while the obtained interference pattern is modulated by a background representing the autocorrelation function of the diffuser. The technique is applied to the region above a candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) flame. An improved quality of the interference fringes is achieved with a multiple-exposure technique. flow characteristics in one ceramic candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) filterThe objective of this study is to characterize the three-dimensional fluid flow in the vessel containing one ceramic candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) filter. The three-dimensional governing equations are formulated in this study and the turbulent k-É› model is adopted for the numerical computation. It is found that the viscous force is dominant in the porous region with compared to inertia force. Pressure decreases linearly when the flow passing through the porous medium. When the face velocity is 0.03 m/s, the pressure drop is about 350 Pa. It has also been found that the fluid with the spiral motion to be sunk into the filter in the vessel. modeling of flow field in ceramic candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) filterIntegrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is one of the candidates to achieve stringent environmental regulation among the clean coal technologies. Advancing the technology of the hot gas cleanup systems is the most critical component in the development of the IGCC. Thus the aim of this study is to understand the flow field in the ceramic filter and the influence of ceramic filter in removal of the particles contained in the hot gas flow. The numerical model based on the Reynolds stress turbulence model with the Darcy’s law in the porous region is adopted. It is found that the effect of the porosity in the flowfield is negligibly small while the effect of the filter length is significant. It is also found as the permeability decreases, the reattachment point due to the flow separation moves upstream. This is because the fluid is sucked into the filter region due to the pressure drop before the flow separation occurs. The particle follows well with the fluid stream and the particle is directly sucked into the filter due to the pressure drop even in the flow separation region. a candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) in the Romanian darknessMedical students in the Romanian city of Cluj came together to form 'Asklepyos', the Medical and Social Aid Organisation, in the aftermath of the 1989 revolt. Their initial concern with bringing comfort and material help to those most at risk as already depleted state agencies seized up, soon extended to championing the rights of orphans and handicapped people.Asklepyos won the respect and direct backing of western relief agencies because of its professionalism and idealism, attributes in short supply in a country profoundly damaged by the Ceausescu dictatorship. However, it has incurred the hostility of the state on account of its intention to encourage people to co-operate for social goals independent of compromised state agencies.In a society where self-organising associations have been hampered by personality disputes, ethnic suspicions, and past associations with communism, Asklepyos is recognised to be an exceptional initiative. If it founders, this may suggest that the chances of civil society being revitalised in Romania are currently bleak., Immanence, and Transcendence: The Candle-Lighting Repertoire of Middle-Eastern JewsThis article examines the candle-lighting ritual repertoire of Middle-Eastern Jews in Israel. It is demonstrated that the men's rituals sanctify and symbolically manipulate sacred time and space, whereas the women's rituals sanctify and symbolically manipulate personal relationships. Traditional Middle-Eastern Jewish culture is highly sexually segregated, with men and women expressing different values and concerns. It is suggested that the ways in which women and men ritually use and interpret candles help mediate male and female existential modes. of soil-cation composition on reactions of four herbicides in a candler fine sandSorption, persistence and transport of herbicides in soils depend on the relative saturation of soils with cations from various soil amendments. Current research was conducted to study the effect of preequilibration of a Candler fine sand (Hyperthermic uncoated typic Quartzipsamments; 0–30 cm depth) with AlCl3, CaCl2, CuCl2, FeCl3, or KCl salt solutions on sorption in bromacil, simazine, norflurazon, and diuron herbicides commonly used in Florida citrus groves. Preequilibration of the soil with either FeCl3, or AlCl3 significantly decreased the sorption and therefore increased internal leaching potential, of all four herbicides as compared to their sorption in untreated soil. This decrease in sorption was much greater for bromacil and simazine (24 to 35%) than for norflurazon and diuron (7 to 8%). The desorption of bromacil and diuron in 1M NH4OAc was also significantly lower in soils preequilibrated with FeCl3 or AlCl3 than the untreated soil. However, the reverse was true in the case of simazine and norflurazon. Preequilibration of the soil with CuCl2, KCl, and CaCl2 resulted in a significant decrease in sorption of norflurazon, diuron, and simazine but did not affect bromacil sorption. Accordingly, the species of adsorbed cation had varying effects on the sorption/desorption of each of the herbicides and varied their leaching potential. US and human rights: A flickering candleThe US has at times championed political, civil and economic aspects of human rights, but cold war politics have made its commitment unreliable. EFFECTS OF WINTER DRAWDOWN ON MACROPHYTES IN CANDLEWOOD LAKE, CONNECTICUTBetween 1980 and 1983 dense beds of the macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum L. became well established throughout Candlewood Lake, Conn., at the expense of a once diverse native flora. During 1983-84 and 1984-85 winter drawdowns of 2 and 2.7 m, respectively, were attempted to control the densities and further spread of the M. spicatum. After the initial drawdown, weed biomass was reduced by more than 90 percent in shallow sites; however, little change in densities occurred in deeper areas. The deeper drawdown resulted in a further reduction in M. spicatum densities, although it remained the dominant plant at depths greater than 2.5 m. Najas minor allioni became the dominant macrophyte in shallow areas, presumably developing from seeds. new approach to community helpers: Butcher, baker, candlestick makerCommunity helpers have been discussed in early childhood education for many years. Young children are familiar with the police officer, fire-fighter, postal worker, nurse and doctor. They are able to describe the workers' uniforms as well as their work places. Yet they know very little about the skills and attitudes these helpers possess. Teachers can expand the study of community helpers by using a Career Education approach. acids of canola Brassica campestris var candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) seed and oils at various stages of refiningFatty acids of oil of a current variety of canolaBrassica campestris var Candle, at 3 stages of commercial production and refining, were compared with authentic seed oils, and with the oil ofB. napus var Tower. The proportion ofcis- 9, cis- 12, trans- 15 andtrans- 9, cis-12, cis-lS-octadecatrienoates relative to the all-cis isomer was lower than that previously observed in processed oils. The minor C14, C15, C17 fatty acids previously documented for Tower were also found in the same proportions in the candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) oil. The proportion of 22:1ω7 isomer (1.1% of a total 1.2% 22:1) was intermediate to that of a high erucic variety (0.9% out of 23% 22:1) and the very low 22:1 Tower (2.3% out of 0.1% 22:1). Thus the proportion of ω7 isomers is governed by total 22:1 present. A and B, 2 new aromatic esters of 12-deoxy-16-hydroxy-phorbol, from the irritant latex of Euphorbia poisonii Pax2 new aromatic esters of 12-deoxy-16-hydroxy-phorbol, known as candletoxins A and B, were isolated from the irritant latex of Euphorbia poisonii Pax. Compound A was identified as 12-deoxy-phorbol-13-O-phenylacetate-16-O-α-methyl-butyrate-20-acetate, and compound B was the C-20 desacetyl analogue. candlenut oilaleurites moluccana (Linn.) willdA sample of candlenut oil extracted from kernels of Ceylon nuts contained saturated acids 5.0, oleic acid 28.6, linoleic acid 42.6, and linolenic acid 23.8, calculated as percentages of the total acids by the usual Kaufmann method from the iodine and thiocyanogen values and a lead salt separation of the saturated acids. These figures are in good agreement with those recorded by Jamieson and McKinney for a sample from the Philippines. A review of the literature shows that lumbang or candlenut oils from a variety of sources show similar ranges for iodine values, saponification values and other properties, and are probably all to be ascribed to the speciesAleurites moluccana (Linn.) Willd. Unlike those ofA. fordii, A. montana andA. trisperma, the oil contains no elaeostearic acid. The use of blue filters in the derivation of candlepower standardsThe effect of field-size in the use of certain blue glasses employed to set up the candle-power unit at different colour temperatures is considered.The experimental basis is the fact that in the photometry of high-pressure mercury vapour lamps by the colour-match filter method the result is about 7 per cent. higher if a small (2¡ã) field is used than if a large (10¡ã) field is used. This fact is shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that the visibility curve for the large field is identical in shape with that for a small field, but displaced 100 Å.U. in the direction of shorter wave-length.The effect of this shift when the blue glass is used to set up standards of colour temperature 2360¡ã K. from standards of colour temperature 2045¡ã is shown to be about 0.5 per cent. As the standard visibility data were derived for a small visual field (3¡ã) it would appear essential that, in default of evidence to the contrary, the small field should be used in the derivation of the standards of colour temperature 2360¡ã.Alternative methods of setting up the candle-power unit in terms of light of various colour temperatures consistently with the standard visibility data and without the use of blue glasses are considered. in the candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) industry1. The waxes in use for candles consist of paraffin and, in special cases, of beeswax. 2. Stearic acid is the only known hardening agent for paraffin. It raises the bending (softening) point and lowers the melting point. It can be used in any quantity without impairing the burning quality of the candle. 3. No other wax, natural or synthetic, can be substituted for stearic acid as a hardening agent for candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) stock. Other waxes generally injure the burning quality of the candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) or fail to produce any improvement, being at the same time more expensive than stearic acid. 4. The hydrogenated oils and fats serve as hardening agents for paraffin, especially for scale paraffin wax, and are used chiefly for candles which are consumed in glasses. 5. Synthetic or natural resins can be used in form of coatings only and are used chiefly for decorative candles. 6. No known synthetic hardening agent for candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) wax can be satis-factorily substituted for stearic acid, even in such a mixture as 95% paraffin (MP 135°) and 5% stearic acid. The unit of candle-power in white light1. The differences in the colour of the light radiated from different sources of white light causes uncertainties in photometric determinations. The paper describes the methods used at the National Physical Laboratory to minimize this well-known difficulty by the use of tile cascade principle. 2. The six sets of electric substandards of candle-power are described, which vary in the colour of the light radiated from that of the pentane lamp (red) to that of a tungsten vacuum lamp operating at 1¡¤5 watts per candle. 3. The differences between the values obtained by different observers in the process of stepping from one colour to the next are discussed and compared with those obtained by the direct comparison of the first and last sets of substandards. 4. The probable errors of the determination are discussed and shown to be of the order of 0¡¤25 per cent. 5. The absolute value of the unit of candle-power has been redetermined from the pentane lamp, and found to agree with the determination made by one of the authors ten years ago to within less than 0¡¤1 per cent. 6. The corrections to the pentane lamp for humidity and barometric changes were also redetermined, and found to agree within narrow limits with those previously found by one of the authors. 7. The relation between the humidity and temperature corrections for the pentane lamp is discussed, and the fact that these two effects may act together is suggested as the reason for a discrepancy which has been noticed between the humidity constants of the lamp as determined in London and Washington. Rhode Island Slave-Traders: Butchers, Bakers and Candlestick-MakersAccording to the historiography, eighteenth-century Atlantic slave-traders were primarily wealthy, prominent men who, as a small, elite group of merchants controlled the bulk of the trade. Through an examination of ship-ownership records, estate inventories, tax records and other primary sources, this article will challenge that interpretation, demonstrating that, at least in Rhode Island, the slave-trade was characterized by a fairly large number of slave-traders from diverse occupational backgrounds and levels of society. While some were wealthy merchants, actively pursuing overseas or coastal trade, many more were of a middling sort who invested in only one or two ventures apiece in their lifetimes. Since most large and small investors were engaged in commercial activities directly or indirectly related to the slave-trade, the broad base of the trade underlines the pervasive influence of slavery and the slave-trade within Rhode Island society in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. blood lead levels amongst Hinayana Buddhist monks: A possible effect due to daily exposure to joss stick and candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) smokeLead (Pb) has no relevant biological functions and is one of the most toxic metals. Among several other heavy metals, monitoring of Pb is an important focus in occupational medicine. In exposure and risk evaluation, monitoring Pb biologically has several advantages over technical exposure assessment. In this study, a high blood level of Pb was found amongst Hinayana Buddhist monks, who constitute a new forgotten high-risk population. The high blood Pb levels amongst this population might be due to prolonged exposure to joss stick and candles(China Candle Manufacturer and China Candles Supplier) smoke.